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Duration – 1 week
6 - Moura
Travel: Serpa »Moura: 32 kms
Travel time (expected): 45 minutes.
The left bank of the Guadiana, built in the Roman period in Western Betic and always under the political influence of Seville, played throughout the Middle Ages and then to the War of Restoration, a role fairly important in foreign policy of Portugal.
In Santo Aleixo area are detectable traces that show a prehistoric occupation, especially in Herdade da Negrita, where an important set megalithic. This human settlement in the municipality, since times as indented, is justified in the richness of ore zone, close to important rivers and the existence of important growing areas.
The Moura Castle based on a settlement of the Iron Age proven political and economic importance, contemporary Castro of Azougada, the Mice and the Alamo, where in 1930 was made an important finding of five pieces in gold, now kept in the National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology.
The time of the Roman domination (3rd century BC - AD 5) was of great importance in Moura: numerous Villae (large farms) and Romanized forts are marked throughout the County. The Aras and cupae - - some of which preserved in the Municipal Museum and the epigraphic funerary monuments abound.
The Arabs (centuries. 8-13) came to us a tower of mud the Almohad time in Moura Castle, ceramics and tombstones epigraphed.
The castle was rebuilt in the 14th century, at a time that increments the occupation of extramural space, with the expansion of the suburbs Vila.
In 1554 received the title of "Outstanding Moura village", constituting a major population center of the south of the country, with about 900 homes and approximately 3,000 inhabitants.
The Wars of the Restoration led to a strengthening of the defensive structure, with the construction of a new line of walls. These fortifications have been almost totally ruin in 1707, after the occupation of the village by the Duke of Osuna, Spanish General that sent raze.
Moura was elevated to city status in 1988.
Castelo de Moura (Castle Moura)
It is believed that the early human occupation of this site dates back to a fort from the Iron Age, successively occupied by the Romans, Visigoths and the Muslims, when reached regional expression as the capital of Al-Manijah province, as the various archaeological evidence currently collected the Municipal Museum of Moura. The construction of the Muslim fortification in mud, will date from the mid-eleventh century to the early 12th century, which came in a few remains such as the call Tower of Salúquia.
The medieval castle
At the time of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, the village was first conquered in 1166 by the brothers Pedro and Álvaro Rodrigues and almost lost then. It was also in 1166, conquered by Geraldo Fearless, and after that, until the reign of King Dinis, been lost and recaptured four more times.
Received a charter granted by King Afonso Henriques (1112-1185) in 1171. The village charter was confirmed in 1217 by King Alfonso II (1211-1223). The definitive Christian rule in the region, however, would only be reached from 1232.
Under the reign of King Dinis (1279-1325), the village received new a charter (December 9, 1295, a privilege extended to the Moorish community in 1296 and renovated in 1315), proceeding to the reconstruction of the castle, Taking advantage if the old Muslim walls. To this end the Order of Avis made a donation of one third of the incomes of the churches of Moura and Serpa to "remake and food of Alcaceres of said castles" (1320). To complement the work undertaken in the castles of Moura and Serpa, was built in this period a line of watchtowers covering the streak, which survives the Watchtower of Magra Head.
In the second half of the 14th century, under the reign of Ferdinand (1367-1383), began second surrounding walls, involving the new limits of the village, increased. When he passed away, opening the 1383-1385 crisis, the town and its castle sided by Beatrice and John I of Castile until the time of the battle of Aljubarrota.
Under the reign of King Manuel I (1495-1521), the town and its castle are figured by Duarte de Armas (Book of Fortresses, c. 1509), highlighting the Watchtower surrounded by turreted wall, where ripping the gate pointed arch, framed by alfiz and heraldry. In 1512, the sovereign granted the Foral New to the village. By this time of modernization works would be initiated their defenses at risk of Francisco de Arruda. Later, even in this period would be initiated by Angela D. de Moura, in 1562, the female convent of Santo Domingo, inside the fence, on the foundations of the old mosque.
War of the Restoration to the present day
In the context of the War of Restoration of Portugal's independence, the Council of War John IV (1640-1656), determined the modernization and strengthening of ancient fortification, given its strategic position on the border with Spain. Thus, with design in charge of Nicholas of Langres a bastion line was built, surrounding the village, enhanced by ravelins. It is also this period, called the building of barracks, originally a set of barracks built by the Lord Jesus Chapel of the barracks at one end.
Occupied during the Spanish War of Succession, blew themselves up the walls of Moura (damaging part of the Tower of Salúquia), following the withdrawal of the Spanish forces under the Duke of command Osuna (1707). In this century suffered further damage by the earthquake of 1755 account.
Unmanned since 1805, between 1809 and 1826 the old castle mud walls were used as raw material for the manufacture of saltpeter. Later, in 1850, Jose Pepper Pants made demolish the West section of the wall of the fortress, to make room for the mill of Vista Alegre.
Castle Moura, including the ruins of the convent of the Dominican nuns and attaches Church are classified as Property of Public Interest by Decree published on 27 March 1944. At the end of the 1950s began the intervention of the government, by National Buildings and Monuments Directorate General (DGEMN), extending the next two decades. In 1981 were preceded archaeological surveys within the perimeter of the set, having carried out repair work and recovery in 1982 and between 1985 and 1986. More recently, in 2002, were preceded landscape recovery work of the castle surroundings.
It is recommended to visit the Arab Museum, built around the old well which supplied the castle.
Convento de S. Francisco (St. Francis Convent)
This convent was founded in 1547, when it had many contributions, especially of King John III. This monarch had a special affection for the Franciscan Order, so endowed the Algarve convents that sent build at your expense. John III donated to the Franciscans a grove in Moura with a cottage, to be installed around the St. Francis Convent.
Although the date of construction dates back to 1547, the work was long and was only completed in 1693, when it finished building the churchyard and the church door.
There were several contributions to the construction of this building, but among them stands out the Isabel de Moura, who founded the construction of the chapel.
The cloister was built by the will of the Father, Brother Martin of St. Anthony, the family of the scallops.
Luis Pereira de Sequeira was responsible, in the 17th century by the construction of the church dome and states that, with lack of materials, stones and other materials, which were destined to this building were recovered in the fortification of the square, with part of church was covered with a vain tile haul and the remainder being discovered.
With the extinction of the religious orders, some parts of the convent were scrapped or reused. Such was the case of the football field entrance gate Maria Victoria, which boasts stone belonging to this building. Worth admiring for its magnificence is the side chapel of Vieira, one of the most beautiful in the district of Beja, built Cupped and dedicated to "Mariae Virginis Asumptio Beatae".
Núcleo Arabe (Arab Center)
Moura even after being reconquered definitively in the year 1232 continues to have a significant Muslim presence, this presence is reflected both in the presence of the Moorish quarter (district of considerable dimensions) or the actual documents to it for the reign of King Dinis . Designed by our first kings as housing for the Moors liners longer has the functions for which it was conceived in 1496 when the unconverted Moors were forced to leave Portugal.
Reopened to the public in 1999 and located in the heart of the Mouraria district, the Arab Center displays "in situ" an Arab well, the 14th century, apart from a few pieces of pottery and khandis. Many Arab traces join these, such as the hand of Fatima (an amulet in bone), Islamic arqueta, and several inscriptions of which the most relevant is the one that is still embedded in the castle fountain, which certifies that construction of the mosque minaret.
1st Street Moorish quarter, 11
Museu do Azeite (Olive Oil Museum)
Located in an area of indisputable value olive, olive oil de Moura has always ranked among the World's best, as evidenced by the Moura Annals: "For a long time, that the quality of Moura oil puts together the best of Portugal, because we see that Flanders, Germany, Castile, Leon, Galicia, if victual oil of Santarém, Lisbon, Abrantes, Moura, Elvas and Coimbra. "It is so renowned for the quality of olive oil Moura part of the collective imagination the famous expression: "Thin as the oil Moura!"
Olive Oil Production reached a size such that, in the 30s there were 26 mills operating in Moura and even a "Street of the mills." Therefore, olive activity had an important economic role within the mourense community as an important means of livelihood, while oil production experienced a more artisanal production and needed many arms so that a mill was able to work (later with the vulgarization of steam engines in the Portuguese mills, the production system is mechanized and decreased employment opportunities in a mill).
Holding the rank of "Public Interest", the Lagar de Varas do Fojo, as it is called, evolves the Roman system of olive oil and met one production active period of exactly one century (1841-1941). This mill is the faithful witness of the olive oil production without the use of machines, keeping all the tradition, in which the driving force was the animal power.
This is a community type of mill, working will make up on, which means that anyone with olive could bring her to this mill and turn it. (Leaving in return a portion of the oil produced on the milling owner).
In this mill can identify three distinct areas: the area of the bins where the olive was deposited, the grinding room where the olive was transformed into a folder, and the area of the poles where the olive mass was pressed.
The Lagar de Varas do Fojo, now a museum and open to the public, remains all the original machinery of this building, and has a set of information that allow a deeper knowledge about not only the operation of the mill, as everyday the lagareiro and history of the oil. Its authenticity and its condition causes the Fojo sticks Lagar is a rare example in the Iberian Peninsula.
The pace of life, still marked by the agricultural seasons, is as old as the county itself.
The four seasons still know a sequence with few changes.
Not lost, so the art of making fine cheeses, confectionery, sausages, wines and olive oils that are a source of pride for the municipality of Moura.
(Migas alentejanas com entrecosto - migas with ribs)
Crème de Feijao com ervilhas (Bean cream with peas)
Sopa de Tomate (Tomato soup)
Soupa de baldroegas (Soup Purslane)
Pork the Alentejo
Entrecosto Malandro (ribs rascal)
Caldeirada (fish stew)
Arroz de bacalhau (Cod rice)
Pargo assado (Pargo roast)
Açorda com bacalhau e ameijoas (Açorda with Cod and Clams)
Ervilhas com ovos e paio (Peas with eggs and Palo)
Orelha de porco em coentrada (Pig ear with coriander)
Espargos com ovos (Asparagus with eggs)
Arroz doce (rice pudding)
Bolo de Mel (Honey Cake)
Bolo Podre (Rotten cake)
WINE AND OLIVE OIL
Casa Agrícola Santos Jorge SA (Agricultural Casa Santos Jorge SA)
Republic Street, Moura
In the heart of the sunniest region of Portugal - Alentejo - is the Agricultural Casa Santos Jorge SA. The rolling hills and valleys surrounding the fascinating city of Moura, offer excellent conditions for producing some of the best red and white wines of Portugal.
The Herdade dos Machados, for those coming from Moura, located towards Sobral d'Adiça / Spain and distance to 6 km of the city. The vineyard consists of approximately 60 acres and about 95% of wines produced are DOC, obtained from Selected Varieties.
Major white grapes: Antao Vaz, Wardrobe, Chardonnay, Arinto and Perrum.
Main grape varieties: Aragonez, Trincadeira, Alfrocheiro, Castelao and Cabernet Sauvignon.
Cooperativa Agrícola de Moura e Barrancos (Agricultural Cooperative de Moura and Barrancos)
Rua Forças Armadas 9, Moura
Moura-oil producers and packers
Moura PDO olive oil
The virgin olive oil produced, packaged and marketed by Cooperativa Agrícola de Moura and Barrancos, come from the olive productions of his co-workers.
The extraction process is exclusively mechanical and cold and contains no operations other than washing, milling, the beat, centrifugation or filtration.
Are excluded altogether, the chemical processes of refining defective oil, or a mixture of virgin olive oils and refined olive oil, which goes by the trade name "olive oil".
Therefore, the nomenclature appearing on the labels of oils distributed by Cooperativa Agrícola de Moura and Barrancos is always followed by the qualification "virgin", which gives it the quality of being a 100% natural.
Presents itself even with the names "extra virgin", to qualify the selection of the best lots of virgin olive oils, that is, those who have better organoleptic attributes and lower acidity.
to be continued...
Post by: António Duro